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light weight bricks for construction a wall

Construction of Foundation

 

(Foundation is a very important part of a building. It is fully described in chapter 4. Foundation engineering is a special subject. A foundation engineer should know how to examine the soil profile and arrive at a suitable foundation. The following are some of the different types of for foundation generally used.

  1. Strip foundation (shallow foundations)
  2. Footing foundation (shallow foundations)
  3. Raft foundation (shallow foundations)
  4. Pile foundation (deep foundations)
  5. Pier foundation (deep foundations)

In framed construction, we use footings as the foundation for the column and the brick work for walls starts from grade beams connecting Columns,  (Grade beams on under reamed piles are also called capping beams )

As the subject of foundation design is dealt with detail in geotechnical engineering which is included in later part of the civil engineering curriculum, we will only examine the general principles of the subject. Under foundations, we will also study the anti-termite treatment for buildings.)

 

 

Construction of Plinth

Plinth is the dividing line between the substructure and superstructure. Thus, the projecting part of the wall above the ground level to the floor level is the plinth. It is capped by a bean called plinth beam. The provision of a plinth beam and damp-proof course at plinth level are very important in building construction. The plinth is usually kept at least 45 cm (1.5 ft) above the general ground level of the building.

 

Construction of Walls and Columns

Walls are mostly made of masonry. It may be of brick, bloc work, stonework, etc.  Hence, a study of these  different types of masonry is made under this head. Construction of different types of walls such as load bearing walls, partition walls, etc, is also to be studied under this head. Buildings may also be constructed as a framed structure with columns and footings and then in filled. Most of the flats and high-rise buildings are built this way. In many places in the  masonry. We use arches and lintels. Their study also forms part of masonry construction, here we suggesting clc light weight bricks for construction a walls especially in earth quake areas like Nepal

 

Construction of Floors

We have to study the details of construction of the ground floors constructed on the ground as well as the top floors. These top floors are nowadays usually made of reinforced concrete.  A detailed study of concrete work. Formwork and placing of steel reinforcement comes under this head. Different types of floor finishes for these floors are also be studied.

 

Construction of Roof

Roof is an important part of all buildings. The most important item in hosing is to have a “roof over one‘s head “. Depending on the finances available and also the climatic conditions, we can have different kinds of roofs. Roofs can be sloped or flat. Many types of roofs and roofing materials are available nowadays. A study of these is absolutely essential for a building engineer. Another important study is how make the roofs waterproof and heat – or weather proof.

 

Fabrication of Doors and Windows

Openings are necessary in buildings for passages inside and outside the buildings. We also need windows for lighting and ventilation. A detailed study of doors and windows is an important part of building construction as the expenditure on this item alone can go up to 15 to 20 percent of the total cost of civil works. Traditionally doors and windows were made of wood and hence this work is sometimes referred to as woodwork in buildings. Other wood works like provision of cupboards are also important but  it comes under the subject of interior decoration.

 

Stairs and Lifts

Nowadays most buildings are made more than one storey high. A knowledge of various elements of a staircase and the construction of simple staircase is essential to all those involved in building construction. Study of the layout and design of ornamental staircases is a special subject. Usually vertical transportation devices like electric lifts are to be provided in buildings having more than four floors including the ground floor. We must also be familiar with these devices.

 

Building Finishes

The final appearance of a building depends very much on its finishing. We have to deal with the following.

  1. Plastering and pointing
  2. Painting of walls, woodwork, grillwork, etc.

It is essential that we have a knowledge of the finishing to be  used on the various materials of construction such as plaster, wood, metals, etc,

 

Building services

Water supply drainage, sanitation, electric supply lifts, external works, construction of cupboard, etc, are considered as items outside civil works and are called building services.

Water supply, drainage and sanitation (building service) –       These works are considered separate from civil works and are also estimated separately. Design and   details of these will be studied in public health engineering under building services. However, an elementary treatment of the subject is always included in basic building construction.

Electrical works (building service). Lighting and supply of electricity for various pieces of equipment used in building also come under building services. The supply and distribution of electricity in a building is a specializes work to be carried out by an electrical engineer. However, the basics of these works are also usually dealt with in elementary building construction.

Usually a lump sum equal to 25 to 35 per cent of civil works is estimated as the probable expense for the above two items taken together.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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