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construction of foundation

Construction of Foundation


(Foundation is a very important part of a building. It is fully described in chapter 4. Foundation engineering is a special subject. A foundation engineer should know how to examine the soil profile and arrive at a suitable foundation. The following are some of the different types of for foundation generally used.

  1. Strip foundation (shallow foundations)
  2. Footing foundation (shallow foundations)
  3. Raft foundation (shallow foundations)
  4. Pile foundation (deep foundations)
  5. Pier foundation (deep foundations)

In framed construction, we use footings as the foundation for the column and the brick work for walls starts from grade beams connecting Columns,  (Grade beams on under reamed piles are also called capping beams )

As the subject of foundation design is dealt with detail in geotechnical engineering which is included CLC LIGHT WEIGHT BRICKS MACHINERY  in later part of the civil engineering curriculum, we will only examine the general principles of the subject. Under foundations, we will also study the anti-termite treatment for buildings.).



Construction of Plinth

Plinth is the dividing line between the substructure and superstructure. Thus, the projecting part of the wall above the ground level to the floor level is the plinth. It is capped by a bean called plinth beam. The provision of a plinth beam and damp-proof course at plinth level are very important in building construction. The plinth is usually kept at least 45 cm (1.5 ft) above the general ground level of the building.


Construction of Walls and Columns

Walls are mostly made of masonry. It may be of brick, bloc work, stonework, etc.  Hence, a study of these  different types of masonry is made under this head. Construction of different types of walls such as load bearing walls, partition walls, etc, is also to be studied under this head. Buildings may also be constructed as a framed structure with columns and footings and then in filled. Most of the flats and high-rise buildings are built this way. In many places in the  masonry. We use arches and lintels. Their study also forms part of masonry construction.


Construction of Floors

We have to study the details of construction of the ground floors constructed on the ground as well as the top floors. These top floors are nowadays usually made of reinforced concrete.  A detailed study of concrete work. Formwork and placing of steel reinforcement comes under this head which is used light weight bricks for construction. Different types of floor finishes for these floors are also be studied.


Construction of Roof

Roof is an important part of all buildings. The most important item in hosing is to have a “roof over one‘s head “. Depending on the finances available and also the climatic conditions, we can have different kinds of roofs. Roofs can be sloped or flat. Many types of roofs and roofing materials are available nowadays. A study of these is absolutely essential for a building engineer. Another important study is how make the roofs waterproof and heat – or weather proof.










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